Bible - New Testament, Scripture

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The source texts of the New Testament, which appeared at different times from the middle to the end of the 1st century BC. e., were written in Greek koine, which was considered at that time the common language of the eastern Mediterranean. The canon of the New Testament, which was gradually formed during the first centuries of Christianity, now consists of 27 books - four Gospels describing the life and sermons of Jesus Christ, the book of the Acts of the Apostles, which is a continuation of the Gospel of Luke, twenty-one letters of the apostles, as well as the book of Revelation of John the Theologian (Apocalypse ).

The concept of "New Testament" (lat. Novum Testamentum) in the current sense is found by the Apostle Paul in the first and second letters to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 11:25, 2 Cor. 3: 6). Also, Christ himself used the same concept in the synoptic gospels (Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20).

In Christian theology, the concept of the New Testament was introduced at the end of II century - at the beginning of the III century in the writings of Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian and Origen. Although the very concept of the New Testament (Hebrew בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה) was first used in the book of the prophet Jeremiah: “Here come the days, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah” (Jer. 31:31 ).

In pre-Christian times, the same concept of the New Testament, or the New Union (in the sense of union with God) was used in relation to themselves by members of the Jewish Qumran community.

The earliest of the texts of the New Testament the epistles of Paul are considered, and the latest are the works of John the Theologian. Irenaeus of Lyons believed that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark were written at a time when the apostles Peter and Paul were preaching in Rome (60s CE), and the Gospel of Luke a little later. In addition, according to Jerome’s testimony: "Matthew ... the first in Judea for those who believed from circumcision, composed the Gospel of Christ, in Hebrew letters and words, who then translated it into Greek is not well known." (De vuris inlustribus III)

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